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Somalia

Location:
Definition Field Listing
Eastern Africa, bordering the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean, east of Ethiopia
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
10 00 N, 49 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Africa
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 637,657 sq km
land: 627,337 sq km
water: 10,320 sq km
Area – comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than Texas
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 2,340 km
border countries: Djibouti 58 km, Ethiopia 1,600 km, Kenya 682 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
3,025 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: 200 nm
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
principally desert; northeast monsoon (December to February), moderate temperatures in north and hot in south; southwest monsoon (May to October), torrid in the north and hot in the south, irregular rainfall, hot and humid periods (tangambili) between monsoons
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
mostly flat to undulating plateau rising to hills in north
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Shimbiris 2,416 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
uranium and largely unexploited reserves of iron ore, tin, gypsum, bauxite, copper, salt, natural gas, likely oil reserves
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 1.64%
permanent crops: 0.04%
other: 98.32% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
2,000 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:
Definition Field Listing
15.7 cu km (1997)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
Definition Field Listing
total: 3.29 cu km/yr (0%/0%/100%)
per capita: 400 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
recurring droughts; frequent dust storms over eastern plains in summer; floods during rainy season
Environment – current issues:
Definition Field Listing
famine; use of contaminated water contributes to human health problems; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
Environment – international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection
Geography – note:
Definition Field Listing
strategic location on Horn of Africa along southern approaches to Bab el Mandeb and route through Red Sea and Suez Canal

People Somalia Top of Page
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9,558,666
note: this estimate was derived from an official census taken in 1975 by the Somali Government; population counting in Somalia is complicated by the large number of nomads and by refugee movements in response to famine and clan warfare (July 2008 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 44.7% (male 2,143,758/female 2,132,869)
15-64 years: 52.8% (male 2,525,562/female 2,516,879)
65 years and over: 2.5% (male 100,655/female 138,943) (2008 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 17.5 years
male: 17.4 years
female: 17.6 years (2008 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
2.824% (2008 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
44.12 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
15.89 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 110.97 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 120.17 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 101.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 49.25 years
male: 47.43 years
female: 51.12 years (2008 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6.6 children born/woman (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS – adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS – people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
43,000 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS – deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA
Major infectious diseases:
Definition Field Listing
degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, and Rift Valley fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2008)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Somali(s)
adjective: Somali
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Somali 85%, Bantu and other non-Somali 15% (including Arabs 30,000)
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Sunni Muslim
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Somali (official), Arabic, Italian, English
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 37.8%
male: 49.7%
female: 25.8% (2001 est.)
Education expenditures – percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA

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